Saturday, November 14, 2015

Go with the flow 2- African gene flow into Europe in various eras



As part of our trilogy on African movement into Europe, this post looks at some recent findings from DNA studies. Note to fake strawmen creators- it does NOT claim Greeks, Italians, Sardinians or other of today's Europeans are wholly "Africans," or that they cease being "European" -  but that in various measures, in some eras, distinctive African gene flow into Europe can be detected well before the modern slave trade/colonial era. Some DNA studies are brought to bear on the question below. Now that the fake strawmen are out of the way- let's get down to business.


Greek DNA: African elements detected - Haplogroup E


African Haplogroup E appears in several European populations notably Greeks and other southern Europeans, in the Balkans zone. QUOTE:

"Haplogroup E originated in Africa. This is true also of its European subhaplogroup E3b. In Africa, this sub- group has four separate peak areas; these are in Southern Africa, Morocco, Northern Libya, and the Horn of Africa. The last two bear witness to the route from northwest Africa through Anatolia to Europe. (The frequencies are relatively high also in Anatolia.) In Europe, Haplogroup E3b has peak values (about 25%) in Albania; about equally high frequencies are also typical of some other parts of the Balkans and southern Italy."
--Kalevi Wiik (2008) Where Did European Men Come From? Jrnl Gen Genealogy, 4:35-83

QUOTE:

"Underhill et al. (2001) showed that the frequency of the YAP+ Y haplogroup commonly referred to as haplogroup E or (III) is relatively high (about 25%) in the Middle East and Mediterranean. This haplogroup E is the major haplogroup found in sub-Saharan Africa (over 75% of all Y chromosomes). Specifically, Europeans contain the E3b sub-haplogroup, which was derived from haplogroup E in sub-Saharan Africa and currently is distributed along the North and East of Africa.. It appears that the 171 AIM test subject of this chapter may recognize the haplogroup E character as West African."
--T. Frudakis. 2008. Molecular photofitting: predicting ancestry and phenotype using DNA

QUOTE:
"In the case of Cretan E3b3-M123 (M34) chromosomes, they most likely signal East African or Middle-Eastern gene flow rather than European, due to the scarcity of this lineage in the latter area.19, 26 Similarly, the presence of E3b-M35* individuals in the Heraklion Prefecture population could probably be attributed to an East-African or North-African contribution."
FROM: Fig 2 --Martinez et al. (2007). Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau. Eu Jrl Hu Gen. 15, 485-493



DNA study detects African elements in southern Europeans like Sardinians- QUOTE:

"Sardinia appears to be a particularly appropriate test case to evaluate the extent to which surnames are informative in identifying the history of Y-chromosome haplogroups. As the other European populations, almost all the Sardinian Y chromosomes belong to haplogroups E-M35, I-M170, G-M201, J-12f2 and R-M269. Haplogroups E, G and J, which are believed to have an African (E) or Middle Eastern (G and J) origin and entered Europe through different migrations,30,34,35 show frequencies in the same range as other Mediterranean populations."
--Zei et al 2003. From surnames to the history of Y chromosomes: the Sardinian population as a paradigm. European Journal of Human Genetics (2003) 11, 802-807
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Italian DNA - African elements detected



















EXCERPT:
Uniparental Markers of Contemporary Italian Population: Reveals Details on Its Pre-Roman Heritage Brisighelli1, et al 2012.  PLoS ONE 7(12)
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Brisighelli F, Álvarez-Iglesias V, Fondevila M, Blanco-Verea A, Carracedo Á, et al. (2012) Uniparental Markers of Contemporary Italian Population Reveals Details on Its Pre-Roman Heritage. PLoS ONE 7(12)


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Italy has historically been a convenient destination for human populations migrating from Africa, the Middle East and European locations, in part due to the geomorphological characteristics of the Italian Peninsula [1].

Sardinia, Sicily and Tuscany were among the first Italian territories to be occupied by humans due to their strategic location and the presence in their territories of important metal resources [5].

The record of all the populations that inhabited the Italian territory during (pre)-history is incomplete; many records were of uncertain location and/or ambiguous denomination [6].

At the time of the Roman Empire, at least two non-Indo- European populations still inhabited Italy, namely, the Ligures, in the northwestern area, and the Etruscans with settlements located in areas far from the Etruria (Tuscany and High Latium), such as the Po Plain and the coast of Campania. At the same time, Sardinia experienced the flourishing of a non-Indo-European Nuragic civilization and, then, the Phoenician colonization.

Materials and Methods

Samples
A total of individuals were sampled from along the Italian Peninsulapresenting 12 different populations (Figure 1), of them (Ladin and Grecani Salentini) being linguistic isolatesd the Lucera being a historical enclave of Arabs/Berbers coming from North Africa. A brief description of these latter three populations is given .

Phylogeography
The mtDNA haplogroup make-up of Italy as observed in our samples fits well with expectations in a typical European population. Thus, most of the Italian mtDNAs (,89%) could be attributed to European/African groups H (,40%), I (Ethiopian)(,3%), J (near East)(,9%), T(European) (,11%), U (European/African)(,20%; U minus U6), V(European) (,3%), X (African)(,2%) and W(Asian) (,1%); Figure 1. There are however important differences in haplogroup frequencies when examining them by main geographical

Mitochondrial DNA haplotypes of other African origin are mainly represented by haplogroups M1 (0.3%), U6 (0.8%) and L (1.2%); from here onwards, L will be used to refer to all mtDNA lineages, excluding the non-African branches N and M [60,61].

A total of 282 Y-chromosomes were analyzed for a set of Y-SNPs and were classified into 22 different haplogroups (Figure 3). Two haplogroups were not found, even though markers defining these clades were tested: N3 and R1a1. Five haplogroups represented 76.71% of the total chromosomes: R1b3, J2(near East), I(xI1b2), E3b1 and G. The frequencies averaged across populations were 26%, 21.2%, 10.2%, 9.9% and 9.2%, respectively. The remaining haplogroups sum to 23.2% in the total sample, and never above 4% in single population samples. 21.2%, 9.9% and 9.2%.(so `42% is either near East or African)




Autosomal ancestry in Italy

A panel of 52 AIMs was genotyped in 435 Italian individuals in order to estimate the proportion of ancestry from a three-way differentiation: sub-Saharan Africa, Europe and Asia. Structure analyses allowed us to infer membership proportions in population samples, and these proportions can be graphically displayed, as in Figure 2. This analysis indicated that Italians have a basal proportion of sub-Saharan ancestry that is higher (9.2%, on average) than other central or northern European populations (1.5%, on average). The amount of African ancestry in Italians is however more comparable to (but slightly higher than) the average in other Mediterranean countries (7.1%). Figure 2 shows in a triangle plot the relationships of Italians compared to other European, African and Asian populations

The North African historical legacy in South Italy
There are two mtDNA haplogroups, namely U6 and M1 that can be considered to be of North African origin and could therefore be used to signal the documented historical input of this African region into Lucera. In our full set of samples, we observed five U6 haplotypes belonging to sub-haplogroups U6a, U6a2, and U6a4. Only one of these haplotypes was observed in Lucera. However, the other three U6 haplotypes were observed in the vicinity of the population of South Apulia, and another at the tip of the Peninsula (Calabria). Regarding M1 haplotypes, we observed only two carriers in our samples sharing the same HVS-I haplotype; both were found in Trapani (West Sicily). Therefore, while South Italy shows evidence of having female introgression from North Africa, this African influence seems not to be particularly centered in the Lucera.

The sub-clade E3b1 (originating in eastern Africa) has a wide distribution in sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East and Europe. This haplogroup reaches a frequency of 8% in the North and Center and slightly higher in the South of Italy, 11% (Figure 1). It has also been argued that the European distribution of E3b1 is compatible with the Neolithic demic diffusion of agriculture [15]; thus, two sub-clades, E3b1a- M78 and E3b1c- M123 present a higher occurrence in Anatolia, the Balkans and the Italian peninsula. Another sub-clade, E3b1b-M81 is associated ith the Berber populations and is commonly found in regions that have had historical gene flow FROM Northern Africa, such as the Iberian peninsula [74,75]–[76–78], including the Canary Islands [75], and Sicily [70,79]; the absence of microsatellite variation suggests a very recent arrival from North Africa [80]. If we assume that all E3b1 represents the only Y-chromosome continental African contribution to Italy and L and U6 lineages the continental African mtDNA component, the African component in Italy is higher for the Y-chromosome (8–11%) than for mtDNA (1–2%).


The origin of sub-Saharan African mtDNAs in Europe (including Italian samples) has been recently investigated by Cerezo et al. [81]; the results indicate that a significant proportion of these lineages could have arrived in Italy more than 10,000 years ago; therefore, their presence in Europe does not necessarily date to the time of the Roman Empire, the Atlantic slave trade or to modern migration. In addition, the Northern African influence in the Italian Peninsula is evidenced by the presence of Northern African Y chromosome haplogroups (E1-M78) in three geographically close samples across the southern Apennine mountains: East Campania

Finally, in agreement with uniparental markers, analysis of AIMs/SNPs as carried out in the present study indicated that Italy shows a very minor sub-Saharan African component that is, however, slightly higher than non-Mediterranean Europe. This agrees with the recent findings of Cerezo et al. [82] based on the analysis of entire mtDNA genomes pointing to the arrival in ancient and historical times of sub-Saharan African people to the Mediterranean Europe, followed by admixture. THE PRESENT STUDY REPRESENTS THE LARGEST META-ANALYSIS CARRIED OUT TO DATE FOR THE ITALIAN PENINSULA.(DEC2012)





Ancient Europe- African DNA elements detected in Mesolithic "La Brana" sample- Quote:

"The La Braña individual carries ancestral alleles in several skin pigmentation genes, suggesting that the light skin of modern Europeans was not yet ubiquitous in Mesolithic times... With respect to two recent well-studied adaptations to changes in diet, we found the ancient genome to carry the ancestral allele for lactose intolerance.. These results suggest the La Brana hunter-gatherer was poor at digesting milk and starch, supporting the hypotheses that these abilities were selected for during the later transition to agriculture."
--Olalde, Inigo, et al. "Derived immune and ancestral pigmentation alleles in a 7,000-year-old Mesolithic European." Nature 507.7491 (2014)


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Internal African movement of gene variants developed in Africa. -Study shows that Haplogroup R1b1 in central Africa not due to 'back migration' from Asia but movement from the south.
Quote:
"Human Y chromosomes belonging to the haplogroup R1b1-P25, although very common in Europe, are usually rare in Africa. However, recently published studies have reported high frequencies of this haplogroup in the central-western region of the African continent and proposed that this represents a 'back-to-Africa' migration during prehistoric times. To obtain a deeper insight into the history of these lineages, we characterised the paternal genetic background of a population in Equatorial Guinea, a Central-West African country located near the region in which the highest frequencies of the R1b1 haplogroup in Africa have been found to date. In our sample, the large majority (78.6%) of the sequences belong to subclades in haplogroup E, which are the most frequent in Bantu groups. However, the frequency of the R1b1 haplogroup in our sample (17.0%) was higher than that previously observed for the majority of the African continent. Of these R1b1 samples, nine are defined by the V88 marker, which was recently discovered in Africa. As high microsatellite variance was found inside this haplogroup in Central-West Africa and a decrease in this variance was observed towards Northeast Africa, our findings do not support the previously hypothesised movement of Chadic-speaking people from the North across the Sahara as the explanation for these R1b1 lineages in Central-West Africa. The present findings are also compatible with an origin of the V88-derived allele in the Central-West Africa, and its presence in North Africa may be better explained as the result of a migration from the south during the mid-Holocene."
--Gonzalez et al. 2013. The genetic landscape of Equatorial Guinea and the origin and migration routes of the Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88. Eur J Hum Genet. 2013 21(3):324-31





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Southern Europeans show gene flow from several areas including Africa-
QUOTE:


"Southern European groups (SEE, SCE, SDN, SWE, and BA) on the other hand derive ancestry from African and Near Eastern World Regions. In particular, ancestry from groups most similar to contemporary populations from in and around the Levant (lev; which we define as the World Region containing individuals from Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi, Yemen, and Egypt) is present across Italy (SCE), Sardinia (SDN), France and Spain (SWE), and Armenia (IA; Figure 2B). Interestingly, North (nafII) and West (waf) African ancestry is also seen entering Southern Europe, suggesting a key role for the Mediterranean in supporting gene flow back into Europe [8, 26, 27]. Dates for the influx of this admixture are broad and generally fall within the first millennium CE (Figure 3B) although are more recent in BA and SWE, including French (frenc24: 728 CE [424–1011 CE]) and Spanish (spani27: 1042 CE [740–1201 CE]; spani9: 668 CE [286–876 CE]) clusters, consistent with migrations associated with the Arabic Conquest of the Iberian peninsula [8, 11, 28] and earlier movements in and around Italy [29]."
--George B.J. Busby, et al 2015. [b]The Role of Recent Admixture in Forming the Contemporary West Eurasian Genomic Landscape. Current biology: CB (Impact Factor: 9.57). 09/2015; 25(19).


Irony: if classic "racial" models are used, Europeans themselves are a "hybrid" or "mixed" breed, one-third African, one-third Asian.


QUOTE:
".. it appears that Europeans are about two-thirds Asians and one-third African."
(--Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (2000). Genes, peoples and languages. FARRAR STRAUS AND GIROUX Publishers)

"Nuclear DNA studies also contribute to the deconstruction of received racial entities. Ann Bowcock and her colleague's interpretation (Bowcock et al. 1991; Bowcock et al. 1994) of analyses of restriction-site polymorphisms and microsatellite polymorphisms (STRPs) suggests that Europeans, the defining Caucasians, are descendants of a population that arose as a consequence of admixture between already differentiated populations ancestral to (some) Africans and Asians. Therefore, Caucasians would be a secondary type or race due to its hybrid origin and not a primary race". This compromises the racial schema and also invalidates the metaphysical underpinnings of the persisting race construct, which implies deep and fundamental differences between its units. In this case if the interpretation of Bowcock and her colleagues (1991) is correct then one of the units is not fundamental because its genesis is qualitatively different from the other units and even connects them."
-- S.O.Y. Keita and Rick Kittles. (1997) The Persistence of Racial Thinking and the Myth of Racial Divergence, American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 99, No. 3 (Sep., 1997), pp. 534-544 



gifts from Greeks? ..





LINKS TO OTHER POSTS:

Go with the flow 2- African gene flow into Europe in various eras
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/11/go-with-flow-2-african-gene-flow-into.html

DNA studies show African movement to Europe from very ancient times
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/dna-studies-show-african-movement-to.html

Guilt3- Why the "white privilege industry" is not all there
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/guilt3-why-white-privilege-industry-is.html

Guilt2- Media collaborates with guilt mongers - or how to play the white victim card
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/guilt2-media-collaborates-with-guilt.html

How Obama plays on white guilt
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/08/how-obama-plays-upon-white-guilt-hilary.html

Blacks oppose free speech- more ramshackle "research" from "the East"..
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/08/blacks-oppose-free-speech-ramshackle.html

Hands off the Confederate flag
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/06/hands-off-confederate-flag.html


Despite much more wealth than blacks, whites collect about the same rate of welfare and are treated more generously
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/06/despite-much-more-wealth-than-blacks.html

African "boat people" ushering in European demographic decline
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/05/african-boat-people-ushering-in.html


The forgotten Holocaust- King Leopold's "Congo Free State" - 10 million victims
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/04/the-forgotten-holocaust-10-million-in.html

Are violent minorities taking over California and the West?
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/04/are-violent-minorities-taking-over.html

Presidential hopeful Ben Carson meets and Greeks
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/03/presidential-hopeful-ben-carson-meet.html

Contra "ISIS" partisans, there have been some beneficial effects of Christianity
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/03/contra-isis-partisans-there-are-some.html

The social construction of race, compared to biology- Graves
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/02/the-social-construction-of-race_8.html

 Why HBD or hereditarianism lacks credibility
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/10/why-hbd-or-hereditarianism-lacks.html

Leading Scientists criticize hereditarian claims
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/leading-scientists-criticize.html

Thai me down - Thais fall behind genetically related southern Chinese, Tibetans below genetically related East Asians like Koreans and other Chinese
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/thai-me-up-thai-me-down.html

Time for liberals to respect "the south" ... in a way of speaking.. the south of Egypt that is..
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/time-for-liberals-to-respect-south-in.html

Irony 2: touted High IQ "G-men" cannot reproduce themselves 
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/07/irony-2-higher-iqs-correlated-with_25.html


Unz and Sowell: Unz debunking Lynn's IQ and Wealth of Nations. Sowell debunking the Bell Curve
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/07/unz-and-sowell-unz-debunking-lynns-iq.html

Irony 1: touted High IQ types are more homosexual, more atheist, and more liberal (HAL)
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/06/irony-high-iqs-produce-more-atheists.html


Elite white universities discriminate against Asians using reverse "affirmative action"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/06/elite-white-universities-discriminate.html

Deteriorating state of white America
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/05/deteriorating-state-of-white-america.html



Exploding nonsense: the 10,000 Year Explosion
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/03/exploding-nonsense-review-of-cochran_8.html


We need "rational racism"?
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/we-need-rational-racism-proponent.html

The Affirmative Action Propaganda Machine- part 1
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/the-affirmatve-action-propaganda.html

Two rules for being "really" black- no white wimmen, no Republican
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/to-be-really-black-you-cant-have-white.html

The Axial age reconsidered
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/the-axial-age-reconsidered.html

Cannibal seasonings: dark meat on white
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/12/i.html

"Affirmative Action" in the form of court remedies has been around a long time- since the 1930s- benefiting white union workers against discrimination by employers
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/09/affirmative-action-as-term-appears-in.html

Mugged by reality 1: White quotas, special preferences and government jobs
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/mugged-by-reality-1-white-quotas.html


Lightweight enforcement of EEO laws contradicts claims of "flood" of minorities "taking jobs"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/blog-post.html

Railroaded 3: white violence and intimidation imposed quotas
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-3-white-violence-and.html

Railroaded 2: how white quotas and special preferences blockade black progress...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-2-thow-white-quotas-and.html

Railroaded 1: How white affirmative action and white special preferences destroyed black railroad employment...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-how-white-affirmative-action.html

Affirmative action: primary beneficiaries are white women...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2011/04/quick-regime-kill-hopes-in-libya.html

7 reasons certain libertarians and right-wingers are wrong about the Civil Right Act
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/05/7-reasons-libertarians-may-be-wrong.html

Social philosophy of Thomas Sowell
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2011/07/social-philosophy-of-thomas-sowell.html


Bogus "biodiversity" theories of Kanazawa, Ruston, Lynn debunked
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/09/blog-post.html

JP Rushton, Michael Levin, Richard Lynn debunked. Weaknesses of Jared Diamond's approach. 
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/04/blog-post_1818.html

In the Blood- debunking "HBD" and Neo-Nazi appropriation of ancient Egypt
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2009/11/blog-post_29.html

early Europeans and middle Easterners looked like Africans. Peoples returning or "backflowing" to Africa would already be looking like Africans
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/05/blog-post_1754.html

 Ancient Egypt: one of the world's most advanced civilizations- created by tropical peoples
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/09/blog-post_06.html

Playing the "Greek defence" -debunking claims of Greeks as paragons of virtue or exemplars of goodness
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/03/playing-greek-defence-review-of-thornton.html

Quotations from mainstream academic research on the Nile Valley peoples
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/04/blog-post_9251.html


http://egyptsearchreloaded.proboards.com/thread/15/basic-database-nile-valley-studies



As late as the Mesolithic, Europeans still had African characteristics. Mesolithic LaBrana Man had African skin pigmentation variants, and was also generally lactose intolerant like many contemporary African populations. Said sub-Saharan African populations can also have blue eyes- nothing unusual in ultra diverse Africa- the most phenotypically diverse region on earth.


Saturday, September 5, 2015

DNA studies show African movement to Europe from very ancient times



A quick roundup of recent DNA studies here and there on ancient African movement into Europe..

 Ancient West African Neolithic in Europe

"Due to their geographic locations, Spain and Portugal seem to be ideal places for  searching for These lineages... The L3f variant found in Asturias seems to constitute an Iberian-specific haplogroup, distantly related to lineages in Northern Africa and with a deep ancestry in Western Africa. Coalescent algorithms estimate the minimum arrival time as 8,000 years ago, and a possible route through the Gibraltar Strait... Results are concordant with a previously proposed Neolithic connection between Southern Europe and Western Africa, which might be key to the proper understanding of the ancient links between these two continents." 
--Pardinas et al 2014. Over the sands and far away: Interpreting an Iberian mitochondrial
lineage with ancient Western African origins. Am Jr Hum Bio, v26, i6, 777-783



Long-standing ancient migration from Africa to Europe
"Mitochondrial DNA sequences and restriction fragment polymorphisms were retrieved from three Islamic 12th-13th century samples of 71 bones and teeth (with >85% efficiency) from Madinat Baguh (today called Priego de Cordoba, Spain). Compared with 108 saliva samples from the present population of the same area, the medieval samples show a higher proportion of sub-Saharan African lineages that can only partially be attributed to the historic Muslim occupation. In fact, the unique sharing of transition 16175, in L1b lineages, with Europeans, instead of Africans, suggests a more ancient arrival to Europe from Africa. The present day Priego sample is more similar to the current south Iberian population than to the medieval sample from the same area. The increased gene flow in modern times could be the main cause of this difference."
--Casas et al 2006. Human mitochondrial DNA diversity in an archaeological site in al-Andalus.. Am J Phy Anthro. 2006 131(4):539-51.


African migrations via Gibraltar

“ These early Neolithic populations of Andalusia appear to have consisted of a number of distinct groups (12), one of which is suggested to have African origin due to finds of characteristic red ochre ceramics (13, 14). Similarities have also been noted between the predynastic Badarian Egyptian culture dated to the 5th millennium B.C. and the Late Atlantic Neolithic culture in western Andalusia (14). Previously, the appearance of the Late Atlantic Neolithic culture had been placed at a significantly later date than the Egyptian culture, and this chronology and the cultural similarity were interpreted as implying that Egypt was the original source (14). However, more accurate radiocarbon dates obtained from Late Atlantic Neolithic culture sites subsequently redated the origin of this culture to being approximately the same as that of the predynastic Badarian Egyptian culture (15), leading to the hypothesis that these two cultures might derive from a common area, perhaps through pastoral groups living in the Sahara. The culture linked to the Late Atlantic Neolithic period is known to have been dedicated almost exclusively to cattle breeding, secondarily complemented by sheep and goat breeding (14), suggesting that an investigation of the origin of Iberian cattle may offer further insight into early Iberian–African cultural contacts. "


--C. Anderung, et al. 2005. Prehistoric contacts over the Straits of Gibraltar.. PNAS June 14, 2005 vol. 102 no. 24 8431-8435



[b]The skin color front: DNA studies show that light skin in Europe only occurred recently[/b]

"SLC24A5 was shown to play a pivotal role in skin pigmentation lightening in Europeans 10. Interestingly, the haplotype profile of SLC24A5 in CEU revealed a high affinity to aFM ( D aFM, MHG = 2) and a substantial distance to aHG ( D aHG, MHG = 28), as suggests that skin lightening associated with SLC24A5 originated from Near East, and likely was introduced into ancient Europeans via farming transition. This was strongly supported by a recent study based on 83 ancient DNA specimens 53."
--Zhou et al 2015 (A Chronological Atlas of Natural Selection in the Human Genome during the Past Half-million Years. BioRxiv (quoted in Cochran).


"We also found evidence of selection at two loci that affect skin pigmentation. The derived alleles 63 of rs1426654 at SLC24A5 and rs16891982 at SLC45A2 are, respectively, fixed and almost fixed in present -64 day Europeans 23,24. As previously reported 7,11,12, both derived alleles are absent or very rare in western 65 hunter -gatherers. suggesting that mainland European hunter -gatherers may have had dark skin 66 pigmentation. SLC45A2 first appears in our data at low frequency in the Early Neolithic, and increases 67 steadily in frequency until the present... In contrast, the derived allele of 69 SLC24A5 increases rapidly in frequency to around 0.9 in the Early Neolithic, suggesting that most of the 70 increase in frequency of this allele is due to its high frequency in the early farmers who migrated from the southeast at this time, although there is still strong evidence of ongoing selection after the arrival 72 of farming .."
--Mathieson et al 2015. Eight thousand years of natural selection in Europe. bioRxiv 2015.




The cranial/skeletal front - a recap:

1-- Detailed modern cranial studies show Cro-magnon crania clustering AWAY from today’s Europeans. Brace 2005 testedthe “Cro-magnid” claim and found it “folklore.” QUOTE: "When canonical variates are plotted, neither sample ties in with  Cro-Magnon as was once suggested. .. If this analysis shows nothing else, it demonstrates that the  oft-repeated European feeling that the
Cro-Magnons are “us” (46) is more a product of anthropological folklore than the  result of the metric data available from the skeletal remains..."   --CL. Brace 2005. The Questionable contribution of the Neolithic to European craniofacial form 


2–Africans possessing the highest phenotypical diversity on earth, producing variants covering most features. Several Cro-Magnon specimens are described as ‘negroid.’QUOTE: “ Both methods for estimating regional diversity show sub-Saharan Africato have the highest levels of phenotypic variation consistent with many genetic studies.“  [-- Relethford, John "Global Analysis of Regional
Differences in Craniometric Diversity .” Hum Bio v73, n5, -629-636]) Three scholars (Arthur Keith, M Boule and HV Valloid found ‘negroid’Cro-Magnon features: "The ancient Grimaldi woman and boy are of the mixed or negroid type." (Arthur Keith. Ancient Types of Man. p. 60) 


3- Several Upper Paleolithic European specimens show high cural indices in limb proportions- more akin to dark-skinned tropical Africans than today’s Europeans, who show lower cural indices. QUOTE: As with all the other limb/trunk indices, the recent Europeans evince lower indices, reflective of shorter tibiae, and the recent sub-Saharan Africans have higher indices, reflective of their long tibiae... The Dolno Vestonice and Pavlov humans.. have body proportions similar to those of other Gravettian specimens. Specifically, they are characterized by high bracial and cural indices, indicative of distal limb segment elongation.." 
--Trinkaus and Svoboda. 2005. Early Modern Human Evolution in Central Europe]   

– AND-

 -Body proportions of early European H. sapiens fossils suggest a tropical adaptation and support an African origin (Holliday & Trinkaus, 1991; Ruff, 1994; Pearson, 1997, 2000; Holliday, 1997, 1998, 2000).” –McBrearty and Brooks 2000. The Revolution that Wasn’t. Jrn Hu Evo 39, 453-563 



4-- Traits like narrow noses occur naturally in African environments: ".. low mean nasal indices (high, narrow noses) tend to [also] be found in arid regions, such as the desert areas of east Africa.. -- Mays. S. (2010). The Archaeology of Human Bones. Pg 100-101 


5-- Several Upper Paleolithic European types- Predmost (Czech), Combo Capelle (France) Grimaldi (Italy) and Teviec (France) show a variant of “African” affinities like prognathism. Some scholars hold this to be an ‘Eastern Cro-Magnon’ variant: QUOTE: 
------  "others like Predomost and to a lesser degree Grimaldi and Teviec, are more prognathic like Skhul 5." --Marta Mirazón Lahr. 2005. The Evolution of Modern Human Diversity: A Study of Cranial Variation 
and 
 ".. on whose basis, many specialists define the eastern Cro-Magnon variant in the Upper Paleolithic population of western Europe." S. De Laet (1994). History of Humanity, UNESCO 


6– DNA provides clear evidence of tropical African types migrating to Paleolithic era Europe, contradicting claims of “Caucasoid” evolution in situ. Tropical limb evidence confirms DNA. The African tropical types may have interbred with local Neanderthals, but in any event would have adapted to the colder conditions of Europe over time. QUOTE: 
"Early modern Europeans reflect both their predominant African early modern human ancestry and a substantial degree of admixture between those early modern humans and the indigenous Neandertals. Given the tens of millennia since then and the limitations inherent in ancient DNA, this process is largely invisible in the molecular record. It is readily apparent in the paleontological record.“ --E. Trinkhaus (2004) European early modern humans and the fate of the Neandertals. PNAS  2007 vol. 104 no. 18 7367-7372 


"The so-called Old Man [Cro-Magnon 1] became the original model for what was once termed the Cro-Magnon or Upper Paleolithic "race" of Europe.. there's no such valid biological category, and Cro-Magnon 1 is not typical of Upper Paleolithic western Europeans- and not even all that similar to the other two make skulls found at the site. Most of the genetic evidence, as well as the newest fossil evidence from Africa argue against continuous local evolution producing modern groups directly from any Eurasian pre-modern population.. there's no longer much debate that a large genetic contribution from migrating early modern Africans infuenced other groups throughout the Old World.“ --B. Lewis et al. 2008. Understanding Humans: Introduction to Physical Anthropology and Archaeology. p 297




So-called “Basal Eurasian” DNA label is based on heavily admixed African types. A 2014 study uses ancient European “Muhlhausen” sample to help define “basal Eurasian”, but this SAME sample groups with Africans per a 2006 crainofacial study. The 2014 study admits that “Basal Eurasian” is closely linked with migration of Africans into areas like the Near east.

FROM BRACE 2006- THE QUESTIONABLE CONTRIBUTION..
Stuttgart Mulhausen sample clusters with African types in craniofacial analyses- - Brace 2006


QUOTE:
"These non metric attributes all support the view that most of the Neolithic inhabitants of Europe tie more closely together with each other than with the living representatives of the areas in question. The principal exception to this generalization is [...] the Muhlhausen sample, which ties closer metrically to the living inhabitants of the Middle East and North Africa.“
FROM: Brace, et al. The questionable contribution of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age to European craniofacial form, PNAS 2006. January 3; 103(1): p. 242-247.


“Basal Eurasian” closer to Africans (Mbuti), African OOA transitional group, (“non-African”) then Early European Farmers (EEF), making up modern European DNA profile in part.

QUOTE:
“We sequenced genomes from a ~7,000 year old early farmer from Stuttgart in Germany, an ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherer from Luxembourg, and seven ~8,000 year old hunter gatherers from southern Sweden.. The Stuttgart sample was taken from a female skeleton excavated in 1982 at the site Viesenhäuser Hof, Stuttgart-Mühlhausen, Germany. It was attributed to the Linearbandkeramik (5,500-4,800 BC) .. The successful model (Fig. 2A) includes the previously reported gene flow into Native Americans from an MA1-like population6, as well as the novel inference that Stuttgart is partially (44 ± 10%) derived from a “Basal Eurasian” lineage that split prior to the separation of eastern non-Africans from the common ancestor of WHG and ANE…
A Basal Eurasian lineage in the Near East is plausible given the presence of anatomically modern humans in the Levant29 ~100 thousand years ago and African-related tools likely made by modern humans in Arabia30,31. Alternat
ively, evidence for gene flow between the Near East and Africa32, and African morphology in pre-farming Natufians33 from Israel, may also be consistent with the population representing a later movement of humans out of Africa and into the Near East.”
–Lizardis et al 2014. Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans. Nature 513, 409–413


Ancient entanglements redux? :)

LINKS TO OTHER POSTS:

DNA studies show African movement to Europe from very ancient times
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/dna-studies-show-african-movement-to.html

Guilt3- Why the "white privilege industry" is not all there
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/guilt3-why-white-privilege-industry-is.html

Guilt2- Media collaborates with guilt mongers - or how to play the white victim card
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/guilt2-media-collaborates-with-guilt.html

How Obama plays on white guilt
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/08/how-obama-plays-upon-white-guilt-hilary.html

Blacks oppose free speech- more ramshackle "research" from "the East"..
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/08/blacks-oppose-free-speech-ramshackle.html

Hands off the Confederate flag
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/06/hands-off-confederate-flag.html

Despite much more wealth than blacks, whites collect about the same rate of welfare and are treated more generously
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/06/despite-much-more-wealth-than-blacks.html

African "boat people" ushering in European demographic decline
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/05/african-boat-people-ushering-in.html


The forgotten Holocaust- King Leopold's "Congo Free State" - 10 million victims
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/04/the-forgotten-holocaust-10-million-in.html

Are violent minorities taking over California and the West?
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/04/are-violent-minorities-taking-over.html

Presidential hopeful Ben Carson meets and Greeks
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/03/presidential-hopeful-ben-carson-meet.html

Contra "ISIS" partisans, there have been some beneficial effects of Christianity
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/03/contra-isis-partisans-there-are-some.html

The social construction of race, compared to biology- Graves
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/02/the-social-construction-of-race_8.html

 Why HBD or hereditarianism lacks credibility
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/10/why-hbd-or-hereditarianism-lacks.html

Leading Scientists criticize hereditarian claims
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/leading-scientists-criticize.html

Thai me down - Thais fall behind genetically related southern Chinese, Tibetans below genetically related East Asians like Koreans and other Chinese
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/thai-me-up-thai-me-down.html

Time for liberals to respect "the south" ... in a way of speaking.. the south of Egypt that is..
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/time-for-liberals-to-respect-south-in.html

Irony 2: touted High IQ "G-men" cannot reproduce themselves 
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/07/irony-2-higher-iqs-correlated-with_25.html


Unz and Sowell: Unz debunking Lynn's IQ and Wealth of Nations. Sowell debunking the Bell Curve
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/07/unz-and-sowell-unz-debunking-lynns-iq.html

Irony 1: touted High IQ types are more homosexual, more atheist, and more liberal (HAL)
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/06/irony-high-iqs-produce-more-atheists.html


Elite white universities discriminate against Asians using reverse "affirmative action"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/06/elite-white-universities-discriminate.html

Deteriorating state of white America
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/05/deteriorating-state-of-white-america.html


Racial Cartels (The Affirmative Action Propaganda machine- part 2
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/05/the-affirmative-action-propaganda.html

Hereditarian's/HBD's "Great Black Hope"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/04/blog-post.html


Exploding nonsense: the 10,000 Year Explosion
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/03/exploding-nonsense-review-of-cochran_8.html


We need "rational racism"? Proponent Dinesh D;Souza becomes his own test case
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/we-need-rational-racism-proponent.html

The Affirmative Action Propaganda Machine- part 1
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/the-affirmatve-action-propaganda.html

Two rules for being "really" black- no white wimmen, no Republican
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/to-be-really-black-you-cant-have-white.html

The Axial age reconsidered - or latitude not attitide
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/the-axial-age-reconsidered.html

Cannibal seasonings: dark meat on white
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/12/i.html

"Affirmative Action" in the form of court remedies has been around a long time- since the 1930s- benefiting white union workers against discrimination by employers
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/09/affirmative-action-as-term-appears-in.html

Mugged by reality 1: White quotas, special preferences and government jobs
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/mugged-by-reality-1-white-quotas.html


Lightweight enforcement of EEO laws contradicts claims of "flood" of minorities "taking jobs"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/blog-post.html

Railroaded 3: white violence and intimidation imposed quotas
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-3-white-violence-and.html

Railroaded 2: how white quotas and special preferences blockade black progress...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-2-thow-white-quotas-and.html

Railroaded 1: How white affirmative action and white special preferences destroyed black railroad employment...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-how-white-affirmative-action.html

Affirmative action: primary beneficiaries are white women...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2011/04/quick-regime-kill-hopes-in-libya.html

7 reasons certain libertarians and right-wingers are wrong about the Civil Right Act
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/05/7-reasons-libertarians-may-be-wrong.html

Social philosophy of Thomas Sowell
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2011/07/social-philosophy-of-thomas-sowell.html



Bogus "biodiversity" theories of Kanazawa, Ruston, Lynn debunked
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/09/blog-post.html

JP Rushton, Michael Levin, Richard Lynn debunked. Weaknesses of Jared Diamond's approach. 
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/04/blog-post_1818.html

In the Blood- debunking "HBD" and Neo-Nazi appropriation of ancient Egypt
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2009/11/blog-post_29.html

early Europeans and middle Easterners looked like Africans. Peoples returning or "backflowing" to Africa would already be looking like Africans
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/05/blog-post_1754.html

 Ancient Egypt: one of the world's most advanced civilizations- created by tropical peoples
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/09/blog-post_06.html

Playing the "Greek defence" -debunking claims of Greeks as paragons of virtue or exemplars of goodness
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/03/playing-greek-defence-review-of-thornton.html

Quotations from mainstream academic research on the Nile Valley peoples
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/04/blog-post_9251.html

Assorted data debunking
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2009/11/blog-post_5570.html


http://egyptsearchreloaded.proboards.com/thread/15/basic-database-nile-valley-studies





Evolution, brain size, and the national IQ of peoples ... - Jelte Wicherts 2010
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wichertsPAIDrejoinder.pdf
------------------------------------

Why national IQs do not support evolutionary theories of intelligence - WIcherts, Borsboom and Dolan 2010
Personality and Individual Differences 48 (2010) 91-96
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wicherts2010.pdf
----------------------------- -------------

Are intelligence tests measurement invariant over time? by JM Wicherts - ?2004
 --Dolan, Wicherts et al 2004. Investigating the nature of the Flynn effect. Intelligence 32 (2004) 509-537
http://www.iapsych.com/iqmr/fe/LinkedDocuments/wicherts2004.pdf
-------------------------------------------

LYNN AND VANHAVEN'S IQ AND THE WEALTH OF NATIONS DEBUNKED
---------------- -------

www.anth.uconn.edu/faculty/mcbrearty/Pdf/McB%20&%20Brooks%202000%20TRTW.pdf

------------------------

Race and other misadventures: essays in honor of Ashley Montagu... By Larry T. Reynolds, Leonard Lieberman

http://books.google.com/books?id=5DLrgG_MflgC&pg=PA190&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=1#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
--------------------------------

Race and intelligence: separating science from myth. By Jefferson M. Fish. Routledge 2002. See Templeton's detailed article referenced above also inside the book

http://books.google.com/books?id=t9OdPPLIgMAC&pg=PA64&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=7#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
------------------------

http://www.ogiek.org/indepth/what-they-mean.htm
---------------- -------

Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
For summary see: http://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/05-02-18/
---------------- -------

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~chance/course/topics/curveball.html

-----------------------------------------------------------

--S OY Keita, R A Kittles, et al. "Conceptualizing human variation," Nature Genetics 36, S17 - S20 (2004)
http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v36/n11s/pdf/ng1455.pdf


--S.O.Y. Keita and Rick Kittles. (1997) *The Persistence ofRacial Thinking and the Myth of Racial Divergence. AJPA, 99:3
http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/pageDocuments/WAURRSZQOE.pdf
---------------- -------

HBD RACE EVOLUTION CLAIMS DEBUNKED BY GENETICISTS
Alan Templeton. "The Genetic and Evolutionary significnce oF Human Races." pp 31-56. IN: J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating scinnce from myth.
http://img560.imageshack.us/img560/239/templeton1humanracesinf.jpg
http://img685.imageshack.us/img685/2731/templeton2humanracesinf.jpg

HBD RACE AND INTELLIGENCE CLAIMS DEBUNKED
 J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating science from myth.

------------------------------------------



MORE HBD DEBUNKING
-------------------------------- ---------------------

Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
----------------------------------------------

Krimsky, S, Sloan.K (2011) Race and the Genetic Revolution: Science, Myth, and Culture
-------------------------------


Wicherts and Johnson, 2009. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/04/24/rspb.2009.0238.full



--Joseph Graves, 2006. What We Know and What We Don’t Know: Human Genetic Variation and the Social Construction of Race
http://raceandgenomics.ssrc.org/Graves/

J. Kahn (2013) How a Drug Becomes "Ethnic" - Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law and Ethics, v4:1
http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1072&context=yjhple

------------------------------------ -----------------

http://evolution.binghamton.edu/evos/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/PageProofs-Graves_race.pdf


(c) Enrique Cardova, 2015.

Guilt 3- Why the "white privilege industry" is not all there

-



Rounding off our trilogy on "white guilt", this post looks at some of the difficulties in anti-racist education and asks what practical benefits it is producing for the victims or those disadvantaged by white favoritism and/or racism.  To be sure a massive number of books and articles, and workshops and conferences have been done in the field, but how does all this help the average Black kid or guy on the street, or Native american on reservation, or Hispanic guy in barrio? Or average Hispanics, Blacks or Native Americans NOT in such venues?

One thing that comes through in the vast literature on the subject is stubborn white resistance to some aspects of the anti-racist project, a resistance going back to the 1960s. This resistance confirms my points in earlier posts, about the bogus claims made in many right-wing quarters about alleged "white guilt." Such laughable claptrap as Obama being elected due to "white guilt" and other such pablum advanced by right-wing pundits like Ann Coulter and others are merely the tip of the iceberg of a relentless propaganda operation. But if anything, the academic literature (see debunking of Shelby Steele on some counts) shows very little operational guilt, and plenty of white resistance.

Gillespie et al discuss this central problem in an article on teaching prospective white female teachers. Plenty of resistance was encountered, and matters were not helped by head-fake methods such as a misleading general course titles like "Individuals and Society" = during which a heavy diet of "white privilege" readings was served. Based on what Gillespie writes, many students eventually came to distrust her, and indeed things got so bad that in some classes, students did not take part in any discussions- they just sat silent. Eventually this was alleviated when some students from her PREVIOUS classes began to open up and encourage other students, but this was due to such students taking the initiative, not the teacher.

Reading Gillespie, equally problematic is her definition or framing of the notion of "unearned privilege" - which was usually interpreted as some sort of personal  attack on their own personal efforts, and/or hard work and accomplishments or that of their parents. Not exactly a way to win the hearts and minds of the white natives. Another problem is insistence at times that white students make some sort of personal confession of complicity in racism etc. This might have some well-meaning therapeutic aspects, but usually meets resistance based on a personal history allegedly free of racism. Most students for example disavowed racism, making confessionals seem forced or irrelevant.

Gillespie rightly points out several contradictions in the reasoning (and behavior) of the students - (some made racist comments while denying they were racist), and their naiveté about white deception manipulation and hypocrisy as regards race, but the resistance and lack of trust makes the pedagogical project a long term one filled with tension. Gillespie mentions others on the problem- quote:

"So the question that loomed large for Howard (1999) as a white educator came to loom large for us: ‘How do [we] be anti-racist without appearing anti-White?’

The students’ inferences and conclusions reminded us that anti-racist pedagogy has multiple dangers, including the very formulation of race itself. In her study of the outcomes of an anti-racist curriculum in teacher education, for example, Schick (2000) found that exposure to anti-racist pedagogy produced a liberal discourse, the aim of which seemed to be to maintain a ‘positive self-presentation" (p. 88). The students that she interviewed in her study had learned that anti-racist language was part of the qualification for the education profession, so they ‘affirmed[ed] their subject positions as qualified teachers whose liberal goodness includes being non prejudiced’ (p. 95). Such . findings show how language can serve as a veneer, covering over complicity, apathy and fear. In Levine-Rasky’s (2000) criticism of white privilege, she finds that students may avoid owning their own complicity in systems of oppression and injustice by simply admitting their privilege; the ‘confession’ of their privilege fulfills [a] redemptive function’ (p. 276). Such outcomes remind us that many white students will attempt to reinterpret any pedagogical strategy that disrupts their sense of entitlement and comfort.

Levine-Rasky levels strong cautions about white privilege pedagogy, the study of unearned advantages and entitlements enjoyed by whites as members of the dominant racial group. Citing its reductionistic emphasis, Levine-Rasky argues, ‘Framing whiteness … essentially involves a people rather than a set of social relations. The project becomes one that is about whites rather than the process of white racialization and domination’ (p. 285). She warns that student resistance is a well-known outcome of this pedagogy and that it produces defensiveness on the part of white students who are then prevented from understanding ‘how whiteness is elaborated in the social order’ (p. 274). In making her case, we find that Levine-Rasky oversimplifies white privilege pedagogy and misses the dialectical intent of authors such as McIntosh (1988), whose work responded historically to the limited focus of multiculturalism in US education on the ramification of racial oppression for people of color. Levine-Rasky rightly points out, however, as do other critics (Giroux, 1997), that white privilege is not an end but a means to an integrated, holistic analysis of social, political, and economic relationships that continue to reproduce racial oppression. And she concludes that her argument for ‘a collective dimension (p. 287) to the study of whiteness still means there will be tensions in the classroom."


(EXCERPT FROM: DIANE GILLESPIE, LESLIE ASHBAUGH, & JOANN DEFIORE. 2002. White Women Teaching White Women about White Privilege, Race Cognizance and Social Action: toward a pedagogical pragmatics. Race Ethnicity and Education, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2002


Some of the above is worthwhile, but how does urging young upper and middle class whites to confess their privilege help the aforementioned "man on the street"? And what practical processes and programs at the street level does it propose to improve race relations? College classrooms are to some extent artificial places, divorced from reality. Making the matter more difficult is the gesturalism and surface genuflection Gillespie notes. Students learn the language of anti-racism and proffer boilerplate, unmoved by any deeper reflection or learning. Another issue is the tendency to "redirect" or "divert" conversations on to whites own concerns and agendas, or even personal issues, essentially sidetracking said conservations as noted previously, a re-centering on whiteness if you will.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Answers are not easy to come by and the weaknesses noted above have been seized on by critics and detractors to distort an attack what is worthwhile. Below are some musings to consider- more to come in later posts:

(1) Accept a tension filled package. Antiracist education will always involve tension and white resistance, because it cuts to the core of and exposes much unsavory white behavior and thinking.


(2) Better define and frame initial definitions before throwing around such terms as "unearned." Yes it could legitimately be said that some white gains in the past were unearned. White unions for example brutally denied blacks access to the playing field well into the 1970s, and some of this treatment literally involved murdering black working people (see US President Harry Truman's comments above). Things such as this locked in advantages for their white descendants. But this does not cancel out the substantial personal struggle or work some individual whites have had to do to get where they are. Though the feeling of personal attacks can be a defensive or diversionary tactic, the common perception by students of personal attacks demonstrates that assorted antiracist educators have not properly laid out the boundaries and parameters of their approach up front.


(3) White people developing "more race consciousness" may not necessarily have the desired outcome. Beware the law of unintended consequences. It is a virtual article of faith among some anti-racist educators that if only white people would become "more conscious" of race, things would get better. Not necessarily say I. Just as the resentment against perceived personal attacks has materialized as a result of some intensified anti-racist education, what is to stop greater racial antagonism by whites against blacks and other minorities as whites become more "conscious"? Recall that the regions of the US with the greatest racial antagonism or strife have been usually where race "consciousness" was the greatest.

And do black folk really want their white colleagues in the workplace to be calculating every interaction in race "conscious" terms and angles? How is a tense "pins and needles" or racial "eggshells" atmosphere a positive thing for minorities, OR whites? If anything it might tire people and make them want to interact LESS with others different from themselves - presto- you have just made the day of neo-segregationists. The law on unintended consequences can apply very perversely when race is a factor. So again, I ask, is more "race consciousness" necessarily a good thing? If so, from whence such books as "Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria: And Other Conversations About Race." If anything, in today's always-on digital world, where an offhand or stupid Twitter comment is fodder for worldwide public scrutiny and outrage is a bonanza for trolls, idiots, jerks and other assorted denizens feeding on and stoking racial poison. Add increased sensitivity over yet another trivial (or non-trivial) "racial incident" to an increasingly toxic digital stew, and the alleged benefits of "consciousness" appear less than touted.

Sylvia Law, Professor of Law, Medicine and Psychiatry, NYU Law School, offers a thoughtful address (Mansfield Lecture- 1999- University of Akron) that covers many key points. But one wonders if "understanding of anti-discrimination principles" is all that is on offer, and whether this will really come to pass. Says Law:

".. my sensible anti-racist white friends protest that the real problem is discrimination against black people, not white privilege. I agree that as a practical matter, solutions must be found in anti-discrimination law. Nonetheless, understanding the contemporary reality of white privilege may illuminate our understanding of antidiscrimination principles." (--Sylvia Law, White privilege and affirmative action - 1999- Mansfield Lecture)

This seems reasonable, but the opposite effect from white privilege pedagogy could be even greater resistance to, and resentment of anti-discrimination principles as stated herein. The antagonistic attitude, or cycle of denial many whites manifest to certain privilege pedagogy is an example of this backfiring effect.


(4) There is a vast right-wing movement that will distort everything and exploit every weakness. The problems mentioned above play into their hands if not fixed. Anti-racism perhaps has its greatest role to play in confronting and debunking such right-wing forces, which too often, trade on falsehood, misrepresentation, outright deception and propaganda.  Among these are the usual "hereditarian" types with their pesudo-scientific claims of "racial evolution" but a subtler, "soft" racialism is in place as well, which couches its agenda and bottom lines in innocuous sounding themes and platitudes, often posing as "mere" researchers and questioners, while stacking the decks and distorting legitimate scientific inquiry. Could black crime be due to "evolutionary" deficits? We are merely asking, oh and by the way, we conveniently will not mention the high crime rates of supposedly more pure whites like the Irish, or the massive, murderous efficiency of white Germans. See their problems could not really be due to "evolutionary" deficits - its only the culluds... Oh and if you question our methods, you are just being "politically correct."

This is the basic game being played out among many whites, including the young college age types. Solid anti-racist education can do much to confront and debunk such nonsense, but it needs to fix the problems mentioned herein to be effective. To a significant extent, white liberals and progressives have let the white right take over the discourse and frame the issues and memes - conceding by default, a propaganda bonanza to those who wish to distort and disparage black history, achievements, work and culture. The large number of polite-seeming blogs and forums (and some much cruder) on the web are a testimony to how successful this propaganda has been.

Anti-racists frequently call for even more race consciousness, but seem not to realize that this focus nay be precisely what  right-wingers want. How? A "race focus" is an excellent way to divide the progressive coalition. Richard Nixon made superb use of this strategy politically via such things as (a) the southern strategy that garnered conservatives a huge addition to the white base and (b) his famous "Philadelphia Plan" requiring goals and timetables ("quotas" in some parlance) of stonewalling white unions who had a long record of deceptive and hypocritical racial discrimination locking blacks out of employment. Nixon enacted this rather radical measure (for the time) as a way to split the Democrat Coalition, by stoking racial resentment, precisely by RAISING racial consciousness. White right wingers continue the same tactics today. Anti-racists on some counts, are naively playing into their hands by calling for more racial ferment or awareness on the part of whites.


(5) Ease up on the "confessional" formats or demands. Whatever therapeutic value they may have, they are limited impact and may stoke unnecessary conflict when there are more productive avenues to be followed. As shown above, Gillepsie et al had a lot of trouble on this point. Mandatory or pressured "confessionals" are not necessary. If volunteers in a particular class desire such fine. Blunt presentation of facts can do more to expose contradictions and weaknesses without demanding an "admission of complicity" in "systems of racism and oppression." Think about it- why would a 19 year old white college student circa 2016 regard themselves as "complicit" in real estate segregation established by practices in place decades before she was born? Yet a demand for some sort of confessional "pound of flesh" is another article of faith among numerous white anti-racist types. This is part of the "reductionism" noted by Levine-Rasky above. Such therapeutic outcomes may emerge as part of an overall education process, but it too often seems to become an end in itself. A detailed exposition of the blunt facts of race privilege will get the point across rather than a search for confessions of "guilt." A hard factual basis also undermines shallow denial and distortion. In addition, confessions may often be trivial- such as a white student "confessing" that she viewed or laughed at "fried chikin" videos with black people in them. Time is better spent on hard exposure of white behavior-  such as the criminal justice's system sentencing inequities, or "cash shakedown" practices against poor people via a massive array of fines, fees and other extractions for minor law or procedural violations- practices that would not be tolerated to the same extent in white locales.


6) Develop PRACTICAL operational steps to improve race relations at ground level without the need for politics of "racial consciousness" every waking moment. One way to do this is to push expansion of "third spaces" venues or locales, or spaces where people of diverse racial backgrounds can interact in view of common purposes, goals and tasks. These "third spaces" can be many- from city league sports teams, to clubs to churches. The key point is that common goals and tasks in these areas, or shared faiths and philosophies or experiences will go much further in bringing races together than another round of "race conscious" workshops and seminars.

Such "third spaces" do not have to be perfect, nor do they need to have some sort of utopian multicultural aura where all the people join hands and sing 'We shall Overcome." What will also bring people together across lines of "race" are common goals and tasks anchored to a moral framework. A renewed civic culture is one such possibility, as is religion like Christianity which has strong roots across all races. Such an anchored framework offers an even deeper cross-cutting moral framework. This does not require some sort of "percentage" representation or "diversity." Churches for example ensconced in their own neighborhoods and social circles will not look "like the UN" anytime soon- and they don't have to be. As a practical example, in some cities churches hold revivals, rallies, exchange speakers, and sponsor local programs like summer camps with other churches. Note that none of these activities involves any of the much touted "conversations about race." If you are holding a joint summer camp, or music festival, or sports tourney with the black church across town there are a lot of things to work on together. Contrast the positive energy in such activity with yet another boilerplate campus seminar on "racism, homophobism, ableism, genderism,  speciesism, sexism, and other 'isms.'" What? We ain't got enough of those to go around?

Various doctrinal differences will not be mysteriously bridged and they don't have to be at such level. If the Catholics want to preach their thing, and the Baptists  theirs- fine. Just collaborate on the "third spaces" and these will promote, relatively speaking, greater understanding between races than another tense "white privilege" harangue. Some might criticize this as haying too much Burkean "little platoon" flavor or too much "communitarian" style emphasis. Where are the chanting bands of activists protesting globalism, climate change,  etc etc.. They need not be absent, IF they provide the aforementioned common goals or tasks in the third spaces. And none of the above precludes a continuing and vigorous program of racial justice advocacy. Why would a summer camp collaboration hinder the fight against say poor policing? In fact the third spaces model would seek to forge new collaborations between citizens and such bureaucracies, since both need each other. In many cities this is already happening with religious leaders criticizing misconduct but the same leaders and police bureaucrats reaching across the aisle to implement programs to improve overall community safety- from neighborhood watch to police sponsorship of sports teams.


(7) Put cash on the ground to make the above happen, especially in multiple initiatives in minority communities. Why blow 50K on another gabfest "race workshop" when the same 50K can be spent to support a year's worth of sending 100 black kids to an afterschool tutoring program or summer camp, or musical/math/tech training, or environmental/community cleanups etc etc.. Too often however, anti-racists commit the same error they decry- centering on white venues and whiteness. Poor black kids needing access to a wider world and its skills would be much better served by such things than there need be no state of perfection in any of this. The particular linkages can be forged a case at a time, a city or town at a time, using religion, civic engagement, sports, advocacy or whatever works at a particular moment o place. Why does it have to match some sort of slogan-spouting activist nirvana? The above are only examples- there are other formats- such as youth advocacy etc.


(8) Honestly determine whether  antiracism is just a cover to be manipulated to fit other white agendas. A key question for antiracists: If you claims to be so concerned about the distorting effects of whiteness, why are you spending so much cash in white venues? Aren't you STILL making white people the center? A similar question arises regarding the bankrolling of such groups as BlackLivesMatter by people like George Soros who ponied up a reputed $33million towards an umbrella of activists, with most of it towards political activity, not actual projects that advance blacks educationally or economically in practical ways. If black lives matter, shouldn't that big chunk of cash be invested in street level initiatives that will bring police and community together in a practical way (more patrols on a crime-ridden street, more police education.training AND more citizen education/training in dealing with the law, etc) or should that cash and energy be put into flashy media events that serve to fit some other agenda?

Which yields the most practical benefit for a struggling black student for example? Political activity by "angry black people" are a staple theme pushed during some election cycles as a way to mobilize the black vote. After the desired black turnout, the ferment subsides. Likewise isn't some white involvement based not on genuine concern about racial issues, but rather how said issues can be manipulated and used elsewhere? Gays for example have successfully used black civil rights themes to push "gay" marriage. In short, there is a "trust" issue at work - the same "trust" issue that led people like both Martin Luther King and Malcolm X to voice their reservations and suspicions about white "progressives." Are they really in the game to help black folk, or to manipulate the process to help themselves?

A related point is whether antiracism is merely gestural, or boilerplate, but with little real substance where blacks are concerned. This  complaint about white liberals- plenty of lightweight or trivial gestures of support, little real substance- is an old one, but still very much alive and well. Martin Luther King complained about it during the Civil Rights era. Says King in: "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." "I must confess that over the past few years I have been gravely disappointed with the white moderate..." He goes on to talk of a passive liberalism that is long on flowery rhetoric or symbolic gestures, but short on real action.  The complaint also appears in the writings of ex-Black Panther David Hilliard's "This Side of Glory," and the detailed scholarship of ant-racists like Eduard Bonilla-Silva's "Racism Without Racists", to everything in between. As far as police brutality for example, white liberals don't seem like people wracked with guilt. In fact some of the worse, most publicized incidents of police misconduct or brutality is in heavily liberal areas- Los Angeles, Seattle, New York, etc. Liberals in NYC muttered the usual things but quietly approved Mayor Rudy Guiliani's "broken windows" approach and its sometimes corollary- harassment and unjust treatment of innocent black people. Nation blogger  Mychal Denzel Smith  In White People Have To Give Up Racism, made a good point: "Not every white person is a racist, but the genius of racism is that you don’t have to participate to enjoy the spoils. If you’re white, you can be completely oblivious, passively accepting the status quo, and reap the rewards."

Likewise one BlackLivesmatter activist notes:
 “The problem with .. white Seattle progressives in general, is that they are utterly and totally useless (when not outright harmful) in terms of the fight for Black lives. While we are drowning in their liberal rhetoric, we have yet to see them support Black grassroots movements or take on any measure of risk and responsibility for ending the tyranny of white supremacy in our country and in our city. This willful passivity while claiming solidarity with the #BlackLivesMatter movement in an effort to be relevant is over.." 

The problem of diversionary re-centering on whites and their agendas also crops up in the academic literature. Says law professors Greenberg and Ward, in their review of Wildman's book "Privilege Revealed:"

Wildman and Grillo show how analogies between one's own subordinate status, whatever it may be, and the position of people of color work to marginalize issues of race, recentering the claims on white people. For example, at one Association of American Law Schools (AALS) meeting, the plenary session was to focus on issues of racism, sexism and homophobia. The authors recount how during the question and answer period, a white woman rose to the microphone and said she did not want to change the subject, but she wanted to discuss another form of oppression- law professors in less elite law schools... the result of such a comment is to turn the focus of of the meeting from the issues of racism, sexism and homophobia, to the concerns of many of the whites in the audience... Once one is successful in refocusing attention on one's own problem, neither the actor nor the others in the group are required to pay any further attention to the problem of race. Grillo recounts her experience in a woman's group in law school in which all the (white) women argued that sexism was "worse" that racism. 'The women thought they understood racism by virtue of their experiences with sexism..' Again, the process of analogizing, the absence of any intent to injure on the part of the actors, and the lack of an adequate vocabulary, work together to make it difficult to focus attention on whites' racist conduct."


(--Judith Greenberg and Robert Ward, [Professors Of Law- New England School of Law], Book Review: Review of Privilege Revealed, by Stephanie M. Wildman with Contributions by Margalynne Armstrong, Adrienne D. Davis and Trina Grillo, 45 Clev. St. L. Rev. 251 (1997))


Another "consciousness" exercise..



Summary

 Does any of the above mean the abandonment of white privilege pedagogy? Not at all, but a different more carefully defined, practical approach is needed. The invisibility of white privilege is an established phenomenon, that few whites see and when the implications do come home to them, it is something they are loath to acknowledge. Hence the need for careful work in the area. Then there is the constant white re-centering/white diversionary problem, and white gesturalism on top of the above. Some white antiracists see such issues, but others do not, and solutions are not readily apparent.

A question of relevance for minorities. But above and beyond that- what practical help does said pedagogy offer the minority kid, or "man on the street"? It is all well and good to talk to well-heeled middle class white people but after the talking-shop, what? There is a great demand in minority communities for PRACTICAL help, CONCRETE programs that address specific problems. How does that "litmus test" of much white privilege pedagogy- affirmative action- address these street level issues, when it is the relatively better-off that benefit from "affirmative action"? Another elite slot opened up for the kid of a middle or upper class black family is nice, but of what practical benefit is that in a broad sense, when in some cities 40% of black kids do not graduate high school, or if "graduating" with the equivalent of 9th grade level educations? Many antiracists can produce no end of passionate broadsides against racism, and can always mobilize a few pickets to get some press, but where is the PRACTICAL action in education, employment etc that people on the ground want NOW?

Would a "racially conscious" white be favorable towards say a black college kid seeking his first job? Many seem to assume that it does, but with the long death of "affirmative action" (which was not that strong to begin with, and was gutted long ago), and tighter markets for good jobs, more "consciousness" may well backfire, with said white employer favoring his own relatives, buddies and cronies. A "politically incorrect" employer who simply wants warm bodies to fill currently empty slots may offer the black kid a better chance than "race conscious" alternatives. Why do so many assume "consciousness" will yield the liberal, politically correct result desired? In fact, whites in traditionally liberal areas, when they get a bout of "race consciousness" have been excluding job applicants on the basis of their "black sounding" names, according to several studies. For example:

"Research buttresses this evidence of wage discrimination with findings of significant race- and gender-based discrimination in hiring. For example, Harvard University researchers found that résumés with “white-sounding” names such as “Emily” are 50 percent more likely to elicit interviews than equivalent résumés with “black-sounding” names such as “Lakisha” (Bertrand and Mullainathan 2004). In addition, a multi-year, national study on race and sex discrimination in large and midsized private businesses found that intentional discrimination exists in every region of the country and in each of nine occupational categories, and it “is so pervasive that affirmative action programs continue to be necessary” (Blumrosen and Blumrosen 2002). Even as recently as this year, the U.S. Department of Labor Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs found that FedEx engaged in discrimination against 21,000 applicants in 15 states (U.S. Department of Labor 2012). In short, although the American ideal may be to judge individuals by the content of their character, we have not yet guaranteed equal opportunity in all cases."
Source: Economic Policy Institute (2012) The Public Sector jobs crisis. http://www.epi.org/publication/bp339-public-sector-jobs-crisis/


On the positive side, white privilege pedagogy can render excellent service in confronting right-wing racism- in both its subtle and open forms. More difficult is the "soft" bigotry or if not bias, skewed race assumptions of the ostensibly "progressive." Unless anti-racist pedagogy finds some way to bridge these gaps it will always remain a talking shop- garnering some lip service perhaps, but largely ignored or rejected, or alternatively (a) exploited as propaganda grist for the right-wing mills, or (b) serving as a stalking-horse or cover for other liberal white agendas.








Guilt3- Why the "white privilege industry" is not all there
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/guilt3-why-white-privilege-industry-is.html


Guilt2- Media collaborates with guilt mongers - or how to play the white victim card
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/guilt2-media-collaborates-with-guilt.html

How Obama plays on white guilt- Hilary capitalizes
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/08/how-obama-plays-upon-white-guilt-hilary.html

Hands off the Confederate flag
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/06/hands-off-confederate-flag.html

Despite much more wealth than blacks, whites collect about the same rate of welfare and are treated more generously
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/06/despite-much-more-wealth-than-blacks.html

African "boat people" ushering in European demographic decline
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/05/african-boat-people-ushering-in.html


The forgotten Holocaust- King Leopold's "Congo Free State" - 10 million victims
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/04/the-forgotten-holocaust-10-million-in.html

Are violent minorities taking over California and the West?
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/04/are-violent-minorities-taking-over.html

Presidential hopeful Ben Carson meets and Greeks
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/03/presidential-hopeful-ben-carson-meet.html

Contra "ISIS" partisans, there have been some beneficial effects of Christianity
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/03/contra-isis-partisans-there-are-some.html

The social construction of race, compared to biology- Graves
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/02/the-social-construction-of-race_8.html

 Why HBD or hereditarianism lacks credibility
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/10/why-hbd-or-hereditarianism-lacks.html

Leading Scientists criticize hereditarian claims
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/leading-scientists-criticize.html

Thai me down - Thais fall behind genetically related southern Chinese, Tibetans below genetically related East Asians like Koreans and other Chinese
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/thai-me-up-thai-me-down.html

Time for liberals to respect "the south" ... in a way of speaking.. the south of Egypt that is..
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/time-for-liberals-to-respect-south-in.html

Irony 2: touted High IQ "G-men" cannot reproduce themselves 
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/07/irony-2-higher-iqs-correlated-with_25.html


Unz and Sowell: Unz debunking Lynn's IQ and Wealth of Nations. Sowell debunking the Bell Curve
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/07/unz-and-sowell-unz-debunking-lynns-iq.html

Irony 1: touted High IQ types are more homosexual, more atheist, and more liberal (HAL)
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/06/irony-high-iqs-produce-more-atheists.html


Elite white universities discriminate against Asians using reverse "affirmative action"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/06/elite-white-universities-discriminate.html

Deteriorating state of white America
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/05/deteriorating-state-of-white-america.html


Racial Cartels (The Affirmative Action Propaganda machine- part 2
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/05/the-affirmative-action-propaganda.html

Hereditarian's/HBD's "Great Black Hope"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/04/blog-post.html


Exploding nonsense: the 10,000 Year Explosion
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/03/exploding-nonsense-review-of-cochran_8.html


We need "rational racism"? Proponent Dinesh D;Souza becomes his own test case
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/we-need-rational-racism-proponent.html

The Affirmative Action Propaganda Machine- part 1
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/the-affirmatve-action-propaganda.html

Two rules for being "really" black- no white wimmen, no Republican
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/to-be-really-black-you-cant-have-white.html

The Axial age reconsidered - or latitude not attitide
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/the-axial-age-reconsidered.html

Cannibal seasonings: dark meat on white
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/12/i.html

"Affirmative Action" in the form of court remedies has been around a long time- since the 1930s- benefiting white union workers against discrimination by employers
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/09/affirmative-action-as-term-appears-in.html

Mugged by reality 1: White quotas, special preferences and government jobs
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/mugged-by-reality-1-white-quotas.html


Lightweight enforcement of EEO laws contradicts claims of "flood" of minorities "taking jobs"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/blog-post.html

Railroaded 3: white violence and intimidation imposed quotas
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-3-white-violence-and.html

Railroaded 2: how white quotas and special preferences blockade black progress...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-2-thow-white-quotas-and.html

Railroaded 1: How white affirmative action and white special preferences destroyed black railroad employment...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-how-white-affirmative-action.html

Affirmative action: primary beneficiaries are white women...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2011/04/quick-regime-kill-hopes-in-libya.html

7 reasons certain libertarians and right-wingers are wrong about the Civil Right Act
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/05/7-reasons-libertarians-may-be-wrong.html

Social philosophy of Thomas Sowell
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2011/07/social-philosophy-of-thomas-sowell.html



Bogus "biodiversity" theories of Kanazawa, Ruston, Lynn debunked
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/09/blog-post.html

JP Rushton, Michael Levin, Richard Lynn debunked. Weaknesses of Jared Diamond's approach. 
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/04/blog-post_1818.html

In the Blood- debunking "HBD" and Neo-Nazi appropriation of ancient Egypt
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2009/11/blog-post_29.html

early Europeans and middle Easterners looked like Africans. Peoples returning or "backflowing" to Africa would already be looking like Africans
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/05/blog-post_1754.html

 Ancient Egypt: one of the world's most advanced civilizations- created by tropical peoples
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/09/blog-post_06.html

Playing the "Greek defence" -debunking claims of Greeks as paragons of virtue or exemplars of goodness
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/03/playing-greek-defence-review-of-thornton.html

Quotations from mainstream academic research on the Nile Valley peoples
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/04/blog-post_9251.html

Assorted data debunking
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2009/11/blog-post_5570.html


http://egyptsearchreloaded.proboards.com/thread/15/basic-database-nile-valley-studies





Evolution, brain size, and the national IQ of peoples ... - Jelte Wicherts 2010
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wichertsPAIDrejoinder.pdf
------------------------------------

Why national IQs do not support evolutionary theories of intelligence - WIcherts, Borsboom and Dolan 2010
Personality and Individual Differences 48 (2010) 91-96
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wicherts2010.pdf
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Are intelligence tests measurement invariant over time? by JM Wicherts - ?2004
 --Dolan, Wicherts et al 2004. Investigating the nature of the Flynn effect. Intelligence 32 (2004) 509-537
http://www.iapsych.com/iqmr/fe/LinkedDocuments/wicherts2004.pdf
-------------------------------------------

LYNN AND VANHAVEN'S IQ AND THE WEALTH OF NATIONS DEBUNKED
---------------- -------

www.anth.uconn.edu/faculty/mcbrearty/Pdf/McB%20&%20Brooks%202000%20TRTW.pdf

------------------------

Race and other misadventures: essays in honor of Ashley Montagu... By Larry T. Reynolds, Leonard Lieberman

http://books.google.com/books?id=5DLrgG_MflgC&pg=PA190&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=1#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
--------------------------------

Race and intelligence: separating science from myth. By Jefferson M. Fish. Routledge 2002. See Templeton's detailed article referenced above also inside the book

http://books.google.com/books?id=t9OdPPLIgMAC&pg=PA64&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=7#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
------------------------

http://www.ogiek.org/indepth/what-they-mean.htm
---------------- -------

Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
For summary see: http://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/05-02-18/
---------------- -------

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~chance/course/topics/curveball.html

-----------------------------------------------------------

--S OY Keita, R A Kittles, et al. "Conceptualizing human variation," Nature Genetics 36, S17 - S20 (2004)
http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v36/n11s/pdf/ng1455.pdf


--S.O.Y. Keita and Rick Kittles. (1997) *The Persistence ofRacial Thinking and the Myth of Racial Divergence. AJPA, 99:3
http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/pageDocuments/WAURRSZQOE.pdf
---------------- -------

HBD RACE EVOLUTION CLAIMS DEBUNKED BY GENETICISTS
Alan Templeton. "The Genetic and Evolutionary significnce oF Human Races." pp 31-56. IN: J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating scinnce from myth.
http://img560.imageshack.us/img560/239/templeton1humanracesinf.jpg
http://img685.imageshack.us/img685/2731/templeton2humanracesinf.jpg

HBD RACE AND INTELLIGENCE CLAIMS DEBUNKED
 J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating science from myth.

------------------------------------------



MORE HBD DEBUNKING
-------------------------------- ---------------------

Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
----------------------------------------------

Krimsky, S, Sloan.K (2011) Race and the Genetic Revolution: Science, Myth, and Culture
-------------------------------


Wicherts and Johnson, 2009. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/04/24/rspb.2009.0238.full



--Joseph Graves, 2006. What We Know and What We Don’t Know: Human Genetic Variation and the Social Construction of Race
http://raceandgenomics.ssrc.org/Graves/

J. Kahn (2013) How a Drug Becomes "Ethnic" - Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law and Ethics, v4:1
http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1072&context=yjhple

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http://evolution.binghamton.edu/evos/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/PageProofs-Graves_race.pdf